translates as "Lake where the deer shed horns." Here can be found
wolf dens 40 feet in diameter and 80 feet deep, with perpendicular walls,
subterranean streams, and caverns. The Giant's Pool has vertical walls of
limestone and a depth of 300 feet, which must be crossed in a single leap.
original track of land included 1500 acres. It was sold in 1700 to William Penn
by the Chief of the Susquehanock (AKA Andastes) Indians for "a parcel of
English goods." The story goes that Chief Wi-Daadh died of a broken heart
when he realized he'd sold this treasured land for a few worldly goods.
is to the ancient Susquehannocks what Jerusalem is to Christian, Moslem and
Jewish faiths. It was the center of their spiritual monotheistic religion, and
the residence of Wi-Daadh, the light of his people. The wolf den caves were
underground temples and cathedrals where spiritual leaders and their students
made contact with the spirit world. The spring that begins Antes Creek is
located here. The creek flows about three miles into the Susquehanna River.
stone column marks the gravesite of Chief Wi-Daagh. In 1900, this Ionic column
was removed from the fire-ravaged captial building in Harrisburg, and brought
to Lochabar by Colonel Sanderson. It is 45 feet high and weighs 41 tons.
Colonel Sanderson was the great grandson of Indian scout Robert Covenhoven.
entrance of Brandon Park in Williamsport, PA is a monument to Munsee Chief
Woapalanne (Bald Eagle). Many local areas still bear his name: Bald Eagle
Creek, Bald Eagle Mountain, Bald Eagle's Nest (now Milesburg), and Bald Eagle
Township in Clinton County.
the Revolutionary War Woapalanne lead war parties from Bald Eagle's Nest
against settlements in the West Branch Valley. He reputedly killed James Brady
near Williamsport in 1778. Woapalanne was killed in June 1779 by James' elder
brother Sam, near Brandy's Bend in Clarion County.
Friedenshutten "Huts (or tents) of Peace" (Compiled from various sources)
In 1765, David Zeisberger and John Woolman
established a Moravian Mission called Friedenshutten, near Wyalusing, to bring
Christianity to the Delaware Indians who called the area M'chwihilusing
(Anglicized as Wyalusing). This missionary settlement lasted from May 9, 1765
to June 11, 1772.
clan of the Minsis (sic) Indians, under Chief Poppanhauk, settled on a cove at
the mouth of Wyalusing Creek after their chief met with Moravians near Bethlehem and was favorably impressed with them and their Christian teachings.
In May 1760, Christian Fredrick Post of
Bethlehem, who was on a mission of danger to the Six Nations, came to that
Wyalusing village and spent the night. John Hays accompanied him. They
described the village as a "religious band of Indians on the east side of the
river." They estimated the village as "twenty well-built Indian
At the request of Chief
Poppanhauk's people, Post tarried a day and preached to the villagers. This
sermon was the first church service in northern Pennsylvania.
David Zeisberger came to the area as a missionary in 1763 he baptized Chief
Poppanhauk. John Woodman, an evangelist of the Society of Friends (Quakers),
reputedly visited the village before the arrival of
Pontiac Rebellion Chief Poppanhauk's people moved to Philadelphia where they
were protected by the Moravians. In 1765, Pappanhauk and 170 of his people
returned to their village. They cleared and fenced land for crops and augmented
their food supply by hunting and gathering wild foods.
These peaceable, friendly
Indians were aided by the Colonial Government. The site of their first village
was on the Ira Brown farm in old Browntown, about five miles south of the
present Wyalusing Borough.
In 1776, with tensions
mounting in the region, they moved their village to the site now marked by the
Friedenshutten Memorial monument. The new village was designed with
streets lined by thirty-five huts and cabins moved from the original location.
The church was also moved and set in the center of the plat near an 'excellent
spring.' A log dwelling was built for the missionaries. In January 1767 a
larger church house was built of square timbers. It was 32' x 22'. In 1768
it was covered with a shingle roof and four sash and glass windows were
installed. The following year a belfry and bell were
Over the next
seven years revivals greatly increased the number of Indians living in the
village. There were now forty well-built houses of squared logs and shingle
roofs, a large, new church, "with a neat cupola and bell on top."
Gardens were surrounded by paling fences, and the young orchards were beginning
to bear well.
time, the Iroquois reputedly sold the land where the village was located to English
speculators. They sent two Spanish dollars to the Christian Indians as their
share of the purchase money. The people decided to leave their village for the
banks of the Muskingum River, where other Delaware had invited them to settle.
They removed the church bell and hung it in the bow of Timothy's canoe that
headed the procession away on the river. It reputedly tolled mournfully as the
voyageurs embarked for Allegheny country.
Worn and weary, they
reached Muskingum River banks where they knelt in simple prayer of
thankfulness. Here the new-comers built three villages: Shonbrum, Lichtenau,
and in memory of one burned near Philadelphia a third, 'Gnadenhutten.' It was
to be a bitter prophesy. In 1781, American militiamen bludgeoned and
scalped 90 innocent Moravian Delaware adults and children, execution-style in
the new Gnadenhutten, avenging American deaths perpetrated by other, hostile
the remnants of the Moravian Delaware founded a mission named Schonfeldt
(fairfield) in Ontario,
The Greenville Treaty, concluded a war by the Delaware in confederacy with
other tribes. This Treaty required the Delaware to move out of the Ohio Valley
and into Indiana territory.
1818 by bribing Delaware chiefs to sign a treaty, the U.S. government
forced the Delaware out of Indiana and Ohio, across the Mississippi and into
the U.S. government and the Delaware negotiated a new treaty, which moved the
Delaware into Kansas. They were later moved into Oklahoma.